Colorlines

NOW IN RACIAL JUSTICE

Playing While Black

Playing While Black

By now, much of the country has heard of last Friday’s Department of Education data that black preschoolers are more likely to be suspended than white preschoolers. (Yes, 4- and 5-year-olds face suspension, too) The data didn’t get at why but one new study fills in some of the gap. It suggests that a child’s race influences how teachers evaluate child’s play. The research in Early Childhood Research Quarterly looks at 171 Southern California preschoolers, evaluated mainly by Hispanic and white female teachers, and finds that:

Among Black preschoolers, imaginative and expressive pretend play features were associated with teachers’ ratings of less school preparedness, less peer acceptance, and more teacher-child conflict, whereas comparable levels of imagination and affect in pretend play were related to positive ratings on these same measures for non-Black children.”

Suspicious behavior of blacks, it appears, begins even at age four. Check out study findings and limitations (i.e., observations took place in a child-friendly laboratory setting and not in classrooms)*.

(h/t Pacific Standard)

*Post has been updated.

Black Preschoolers Suspended More Than White Preschoolers

Black Preschoolers Suspended More Than White Preschoolers

The school-to-prison pipeline may begin sooner than previously thought. According to the Associated Press, new numbers will reveal that preschools disproportionately suspend black children: 

Data to be released Friday by the Education Department’s civil rights arm finds that black children represent about 18 percent of children enrolled in preschool programs in schools, but almost half of the students suspended more than once. Six percent of the nation’s districts with preschools reported suspending at least one preschool child.

During the 2011 to 2012 schoolyear, some 5,000 preschoolers were suspended once, and some 2,500 were suspended more than once. Schools are getting tough on children, and on black children especially—even at age four. 

Criminal Record Bars Young Women of Color from Work

Criminal Record Bars Young Women of Color from Work

One Philadelphia legal clinic noticed a few years ago that a disproportionate number of clients coming through their doors were young women of color. They all had criminal records and they all sought help because they were having a hard time finding good jobs or any work at all. Their numbers were notable because, as Community Legal Services of Philadelphia explains in a new report: “the vast majority of research, programming, and policy attention regarding criminal records and barriers to employment have focused on men. The impact of criminal records on young women seeking employment has largely been overlooked.”

So CLS undertook a small local study. (Nationally, women are the fastest rising segment of the prison and jail population.) Among the findings: despite the low risk women pose to public safety, they may face more barriers to employment than men. One reason could be social expectations. Women are seen to have committed two offenses: one against society and another against “expectations of how women are supposed to behave.” 

Read more at ThinkProgress.

In Ga., Poor Educational Outcomes for Growing Immigrant Youth Population

In Ga., Poor Educational Outcomes for Growing Immigrant Youth Population

Almost 20 percent of youth aged 16 to 26 in Georgia are immigrants and the U.S.-born children of immigrants. Their educational outcomes, a new study says, are cause for concern. On one end of the spectrum, the population of second generation children has increased nearly 50 percent in the last five years and at the other end Georgia’s native white population is aging rapidly. The educational outcomes of first and second generation youth are expected to shape the state’s future workforce competitiveness.

Here’s more from the Migration Policy Institute report:

* English language learners have a four-year high school graduation rate of 44 percent; the state’s is 70 percent.

* Nearly one-third of foreign-born youth ages 21 to 26 don’t have a high school diploma or GED. 

* Nearly 30 percent of English language learners in high schools have been in U.S. schools for six years or more.

The study acknowledges that Georgia’s recent education reforms have been ambitious. But they don’t go far enough in addressing the needs of immigrant youth, especially English language learners.

Georgia ranks 8th in immigrant population size in the nation, up from 16th place in 1990.

 

‘Vanishing Pearls’ in Theaters Soon

'Vanishing Pearls' in Theaters Soon

ARRAY/AFFRM has acquired “Vanishing Pearls,” a documentary that follows Louisiana’s black oystermen following BP’s disastrous Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The film, directed by Nailah Jefferson, will be in theaters starting April 18, which marks the fourth anniversary of the spill. 

Diversity Critics Target New Media Start-Ups

Diversity Critics Target New Media Start-Ups

The next generation of news providers looks a whole lot like the old generation: they’re mainly white and male. That’s the new gist of an old and resurgent debate about diversity in new media newsrooms that NPR’s Michel Martin tackled yesterday on “Tell Me More.” It all boils down to who’ll be providing news for 2042 America—and whether that group of talking heads and influencers will look much the same like the mainly white cast of today’s Sunday talk shows.

In an open letter last week to new media ventures expected to become the next “New York Times” or “Wall Street Journal,” (Buzzfeed, Vox, FiveThirtyEight, Politico, etc.)  the National Association of Black Journalists invited principals for a diversity chat. And Buzzfeed editor Shani O. Hilton in a widely circulated to-do offered great analysis and one solution for both job seekers and employers: expand your networks.

Check out the above conversations. But other questions to ask if improving newsroom diversity in order to fairly cover America today and in 2042 is the goal: One, what’s happening with the journalist pipeline? Namely, which students (and their families) can best afford to sustain multiple years of unpaid or poorly paid internships in order to become competitive in the field? And two, what’s the FCC’s role if any in ensuring that newsrooms accurately reflect and cover their communities—particularly those who are underserved? 

Individual actions like better and broad networking by both employers and applicants are important. But, structural issues play a part in shaping this newsroom diversity conversation, too.

(h/t Tell Me More)

How Bad Is the Black-White Disparity In Your State’s Drug Arrest Rate?

How Bad Is the Black-White Disparity In Your State's Drug Arrest Rate?

Blacks in the U.S. are almost four times as likely as whites to be arrested for possession of marijuana, even though whites report higher rates of usage than blacks. Today the ACLU is putting those arrest statistics at your fingers with The Uncovery. The project, produced with the brand strategy company Interbrand, compiled statistics on drug arrests for marijuana possession broken down by state and race, as well as dollar figures for how much each state has spent on drug enforcement for pot. 

In a country where more than half of all drug arrests in 2010 were marijuana-related, the statistics put the War on Drugs’ deep racial disparities into sharp focus.

Visit The Uncovery and check out the racial disparities in your state.

Common Performs for Black Workers in the South

Common Performs for Black Workers in the South

This Friday night, Common will headline a Jackson, Miss., concert in support of autoworkers seeking to unionize. Admission is free. Located in nearby Canton, the Nissan plant differs in one key respect from the VW plant in Chattanooga, Tenn. where workers’ in a February election with national implications, voted against joining the UAW. The Chattanooga plant is 90 percent white. The Canton plant, according to Labor South, is 80 percent black. (Blacks, immigrants, and low-wage workers, labor experts say, are all more likely to choose unions. White southern males are not.)

A couple of other things are working in the Canton workers’ favor, too. Jackson, still mourning visionary mayor Chokwe Lumumba, is a Democratic stronghold. And it’s looking like the Canton election will coincide with the 50th anniversary of Freedom Summer. Indeed, the civil rights legacy is said to be strong. One popular pro-union slogan: “Labor Rights are Civil Rights.”

This Friday’s concert, “Fight 4 Justice,” also features Danny Glover. We’ll be checking to see how it and other local organizing efforts impact the Canton election, as well as the larger fight to unionize the South.

Obama Wants Immigration Enforcement to Be Done ‘More Humanely’

Obama Wants Immigration Enforcement to Be Done 'More Humanely'

President Obama met with Latino lawmakers in Washington on Thursday, where they talked about immigration. Undocumented immigrants, allies and some advocates have long called for a halt to the Obama administration’s record-setting deportations. Now, with legislation unlikely to happen in an election year, an increasing number of high-profile groups as well as politicians are looking for the president to do the same. 

One of the representatives who met with Obama in the Oval Office is Congressional Hispanic Caucus Chairman Rubén Hinojosa (D-Tx.), who as recently as three months ago did not sign a letter penned by Representative Raúl Grijalva (D-Az.) and signed by 27 other representatives urging Obama to offer relief from deportation for more undocumented immigrants—the way his administration has with youth under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program.

After meeting with Hinojosa and others, the White House issued a statement reflecting that immigration enforcement will once again be under review.

“The President emphasized his deep concern about the pain too many families feel from the separation that comes from our broken immigration system,” reads the statement. “He told the members that he has asked Secretary of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson to do an inventory of the Department’s current practices to see how it can conduct enforcement more humanely within the confines of the law.”

But some are unsure that the review will create any meaningful change. Pablo Alvarado, who heads the National Day Laborer Organizing Network, whose organization has long been seeking an end to deportations, wants Obama to be more concrete moving forward. “Relief delayed is relief denied.” says Alvarado, “The President has no excuse to continue his unjust deportation policy, and the Congressional Hispanic Caucus should not delay joining what is now a consensus position that the President can and should suspend deportations, expand deferred action, and end the disgraceful Secure Communities program.”

This is not the first time immigration enforcement has been under review by the Obama administration. The head of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) John Morton issued what’s referred to as the Morton Memo in 2011, which should have resulted in far fewer detentions and deportations—but has hardly done that. Morton left ICE last year, and the agency remains without a leader. It’s unclear which director, if any, would implement any proposed changes to immigration enforcement. 

Obama Administration Tries Again With Regulations Targeted at For-Profit Colleges

Obama Administration Tries Again With Regulations Targeted at For-Profit Colleges

After courts blocked the Obama administration’s prior attempts to rein in the for-profit college system, the Education Department is back again this week. Late Thursday the Education Department released a revised “gainful employment rule,” which judges schools based on the debt load they leave students with and seeks to crack down on schools that send students and graduates away with tens of thousands of dollars of debt they’re ill-equipped to repay.

“We want to protect students from enrolling in poorly performing programs that leave them with debt they cannot pay and a degree they cannot use,” Secretary of Education Arne Duncan said, Politico reported.

Under the new proposed rules, the Education Department would cut off colleges’ federal student aid eligibility—which often serves as the backbone of revenue for for-profit schools that target low-income students and students of color—if schools fail to meet a certain threshold. Programs would fail if students leave schools with debt loads higher than 12 percent of their incomes and 30 percent of their discretionary incomes. If students have debt-to-income ratios between 8 and 12 percent, schools would be labeled as in “the zone,” and would be required to inform students that they could lose their aid at that particular school. If programs fail these tests two times in a three-year period or stay in “the zone” without moving out of it for four consecutive years their students would become ineligible for federal student aid, the Chronicle of Higher Education reported. The proposed rule will be open to public comment for 60 days.

As it is, for-profit colleges enroll just 13 percent of the nation’s higher education students, but are responsible for a whopping 46 percent of the nation’s student loan defaults, according to The Institute on College Access and Success (TICAS) (PDF). They enroll a disproportionately high number of students of color. As it is, in the 2010 to 2011 school year, the for-profit college University of Phoenix was the nation’s top producer of black baccalaureates.

The well-intended regulations don’t do enough to protect students who are easy prey for for-profit universities. “Rather than requiring failing programs to limit enrollment until they improve, the draft rule gives bad programs every opportunity to put more students at risk,” TICAS Vice President Pauline Abernathy said in a statement. “And it does not require schools to provide any relief to students who took on debt to enroll in programs that lose eligibility for federal funds.”

Paul Ryan Knows Your Inner City

Paul Ryan Knows Your Inner City

Former vice presidential candidate Paul Ryan (R-Wisc.) has been “quietly visiting inner city neighborhoods,” for more than a year. Here’s what he learned: “inner city” men don’t want to work. He elaborated in an armchair radio interview yesterday with mentor and conservative septuagenarian Bill Bennett, saying, we have got this tailspin of culture in our inner cities in particular of men not working and just generations of men not even thinking about working or learning the value and the culture of work.” He even salutes the “inner city” cultural expertise of another septuagenarian, Charles Murray of “Bell Curve” infamy— thus rounding out 44-year-old Ryan’s homage to all beliefs precious and dear to a dying generation of Americans. Interesting strategy for a party that, according to its 2012 election autopsy, needs to win the next America in order to be relevant.

Below, read excerpts of the radio interview with Bennett, who once christened Ryan, “the man for the moment.” Then check out his recently released 200-page poverty report described by the Times’ editorial board and others as, “polished intellectual cover for his party to mow down as many antipoverty programs as it can see.” 

Bill Bennett: A boy has to see a man working doesn’t he?

Paul Ryan: Absolutely.

BB: OK

PR: That’s this tailspin or spiral that we’re looking at in our communities. Your buddy Charles Murray or Bob Putnam over at Harvard, those guys have written books on this. Which is, we have got this tailspin of culture in our inner cities in particular of men not working and just generations of men not even thinking about working or learning the value and the culture of work. And so there is a real culture problem here that has to be dealt with. Everybody’s gotta get involved. This is what we talk about when we talk about civil society. If you’re driving from the suburb to the sports arena downtown by these blighted neighborhoods you can’t just say I’m paying my taxes, government’s gonna fix that. You need to get involved. You need to get involved yourself whether it’s through a good mentoring program or some religious charity, whatever it is to make a difference. And that’s how we resuscitate our culture.

Ryan may also want to add “the suburbs,” to this year’s getting-to-know America, tour.

(h/t ThinkProgress)

Arizona’s Jan Brewer Won’t Seek Reelection

Arizona's Jan Brewer Won't Seek Reelection

Arizona’s embattled governor, Jan Brewer, will not be seeking reelection. As The New York Times explains, it’s been unclear whether Brewer would run once again, based on the fact that she came into office in the middle of a term:

Arizona governors are limited to serving two terms at the state’s helm. But because Brewer took over mid-term from Janet Napolitano when she left to head the Department of Homeland Security there had been speculation Brewer could seek another four years in office on the grounds she had not served two complete terms.

Brewer, who’s long defended her state’s practice of targeting people for immigration detention and deportation, had recently stated she was considering an additional term.

Arizona’s voters will pick a new governor this November.  

Watch Janet Mock and Laverne Cox Talk about ‘Redefining Realness’

Watch Janet Mock and Laverne Cox Talk about 'Redefining Realness'

The LGBTQ Student Center at NYU is hosting a conversation between Laverne Cox, transgender rights advocate and star of “Orange is the New Black,” and writer/activist Janet Mock. Tune in from 7:30pm-9:00pm tonight!

Studies Point to ‘Access to Justice Gap’ Among Low-Income and Immigrant Communities

Studies Point to 'Access to Justice Gap' Among Low-Income and Immigrant Communities

In what some advocates are describing as a human rights crisis, new studies reveal how widespread lack of access to adequate legal counsel is among those who struggle with income inequality and limited English language proficiency. The National Center for Access to Justice recently launched a Justice Index, which looks specifically at access to legal representation, language assistance and disability assistance across the country. Their study found that: 

  • In 45 percent of states judges do not provide assistance for those without legal counsel, even though 80 percent of people self-represent during court proceedings. 
  • A quarter of states don’t use certified interpreters in courtrooms, often leaving people with limited language ability relying on friends, family member, or uncertified interpreters. 
  • The ratio of attorneys available for people living in poverty compared to the rest of the population is 1:40. 

Perhaps not surprisingly, the states with the lowest ratings (meaning the least access to legal justice options) are concentrated in the South and the Midwest, with a few exceptions such as Arizona and Montana.

The data collected by the Justice Index also supports findings in a report by the Columbia Law School’s Human Rights Clinic, which advocates for increased access for legal counsel in civil cases among low income people of color, women, and immigrants—who have a significant “civil justice gap.” In addition to these initiatives, the Department of Justice (DOJ) convened a meeting in February to address the challenges faced by those with limited English language proficiency, a number that’s nearly doubled since 1990 to 25 million people. 

(h/t NPR

Federal Guide Warns: Don’t Discriminate Against Job Applicants With Background Checks

Federal Guide Warns: Don't Discriminate Against Job Applicants With Background Checks

On Monday two U.S. agencies issued joint guidelines for employers and job seekers on the proper use of criminal background checks. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, together with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission emphasized that employers need express written permission to conduct a background check, and must warn applicants that such information could be used in hiring decisions. 

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission warns that it’s illegal, “to check the background of applicants and employees when that decision is based on a person’s race, national origin, color, sex, religion, disability, genetic information (including family medical history), or age (40 or older).”

“For example, asking only people of a certain race about their financial histories or criminal records is evidence of discrimination.”

All too often often though, background checks are a tool of discrimination which relegate men of color in particular to the ranks of the terminally unemployed.

For more, read Kai Wright’s deep dive into the widespread use of illegal background checks, and the EEOC and FTC joint publication in full.

The War on Drugs Continues to Keep Prisons Full

The War on Drugs Continues to Keep Prisons Full

The latest stats from the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) shows drug arrests are the main source of incarcerations across the nation—a proportion that has been rising steadily over the past four decades. More than 50 percent of those in prisons are there because of drug offenses, of which 28 percent were arrested for marijuana-related charges. The BOP doesn’t include include racial demographics in the most recent stats, but according to the Drug Policy Alliance 61 percent of those in prison for drug offenses are black or Latino, and the ACLU reports that black people are 3.7 times more likely to be arrested for marijuana related offenses than white people (even though both groups have similar drug usage rates).

Notably, the second largest source of prison populations is immigration. Combined, more than 60 percent of those currently in prison are there for nonviolent crimes. 

Gawker Compares New Dating Service to ‘Comfort Women’

Gawker Compares New Dating Service to 'Comfort Women'

In an article about The Dating Ring—a startup that aims to even out the ratio of (heterosexual) women and men of “dateable” age in New York and San Francisco by flying women out to the West Coast—the popular daily gossip blog Gawker raised some serious eyebrows. While this new dating site perhaps deserved a jab, the way that Gawker and its Silicon Valley blog ValleyWag chose to go about it was regrettable and offensive to those connected to legacy of Japanese occupation during World War II and that of “comfort women”—girls and women forced to work as prostitutes for the Japanese military. 

And the timing couldn’t be less appropriate. On Monday the Japanese government announced it would not amend a 1993 apology made by a cabinet secretary, which refused to acknowledge the women were coerced into sex work. Scholars estimate tens of thousands of women were forced into prostitution during this era.

But social media users aren’t letting Gawker off the hook for its latest gaffe. Check out this Korean American writer’s Storify charting how the general public took Gawker to task for its insensitive remarks. 

Watch the Latest Episode of the Black Girls CODE Web Documentary

Watch the Latest Episode of the Black Girls CODE Web Documentary

The U.S. technology sector remains predominantly white and male, with few opportunities for young women of color to get involved and succeed in the field. Black Girls CODE (BCG), founded by tech entrepreneur and White House Champion of Change award-winner Kimberly Bryant, teaches young black women and girls HTML coding, app design, and marketing starting as early as elementary school.

Last fall BCG launched a web documentary to introduce some of the young people they work with and the kinds of projects they complete. In the latest episode we hear from educators and youth in South Florida, who struggle to help youth of color get ahead in the midst of underperforming schools, income inequality, and racism. Hear about the experience of learning to use new technology from young women at a “build a game in a day” in Miami-Dade County.

ICYMI: Belly Dancing When You’re a White Woman

ICYMI: Belly Dancing When You're a White Woman

Reaction is still coming in to last week’s, “Why I can’t stand white belly dancers,” essay by Palestinian-American novelist, Randa Jarrar. Muslimah Media Watch, a Muslim feminist forum on global religions site, Patheos, is the latest to weigh in. But notably, so too have white men in the MSM, including a First Amendment law professor blogging at The Washington Post and Atlantic writer, Conor Friedersdorf. As in all cultural appropriation conversations, a common thread: where do you draw the line?

Jarrar’s essay, which uses the Egyptian name, “Raqs sharqi,” after the popular style, is worth the read. For her:

This dance form is originally ours, and does not exist so that white women can have a better sense of community; can gain a deeper sense of sisterhood with each other; can reclaim their bodies; can celebrate their sexualities; can perform for the female gaze. Just because a white woman doesn’t profit from her performance doesn’t mean she’s not appropriating a culture. And, ultimately, the question is this: Why does a white woman’s sisterhood, her self-reclamation, her celebration, have to happen on Arab women’s backs?

Over at MMW, some of the women identify with Jarrar’s visceral recoiling. They also inject a definition around cultural appropriation versus cultural exchange, as well as introduce a new question: is it still cultural appropriation when “minorities” do it?

UCLA Law prof, Eugene Volokh objects to the idea that belly dancing like all cultural art belongs to anyone but humanity.

Maybe — and I know this is a radical thought — artists, whether high or low, should be able to work in whatever artistic fields they want to work in. Maybe they should even be able to work in those fields regardless of their skin color or the place from which their ancestors came. Maybe telling people that they can’t work in some field because they have the wrong color or ancestry would be … rats, I don’t know what to call it. If only there were an adjective that could be used to mean “telling people that they mustn’t do something, because of their race or ethnic origin.”

And Conor Friedersdorf uses a Native American example to agree with Jarrar that appropriation can be insensitive or disrespectful. But common ground ends there:

Randa Jarrar writes as if all appropriation is self-evidently objectionable, and if her attitudes were adopted widely, we’d miss out on the awesomeness that emerges from our wonderfully polyglot country. Insofar as anyone considers any aspect of any culture to be partially mine, I hereby cede my share of it to the creative commons. Have at the appropriation. 

Be sure to check out all the perspectives above. And, add your own.

Mic Check: Joan Morgan and Brittney Cooper in Conversation

Mic Check: Joan Morgan and Brittney Cooper in Conversation

Joan Morgan, author the hip-hop feminist bible, “When Chickenheads Come Home to Roost,” sits down with Rutgers University professor and Crunk Feminist Collective co-founder, Brittney Cooper. The early February talk was the closing keynote of The Ohio State University’s annual Hip Hop Literacies conference.

 

(h/t For Harriet)

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