Pew Report Highlights on Black Immigrants

Pew Report Highlights on Black Immigrants

In a 30-page, two-chapter report on black immigration released Thursday, the Pew Research Center notes that 9 percent—the rising share—of the black population in the United States is made up immigrants. But who are they?

  • 54 percent of black immigrants are citizens. That’s 7 percent higher than average for immigrants overall.
  • 26 percent of black immigrants have graduated college. That’s close to the 30 percent general population average, and higher than the 19 percent average for back people born in the U.S.
  • The average household income for black immigrants is $43,800. That’s considerably lower than the $52,000 national average, but higher than the $33,500 average for black people born in the U.S.
  • Just 40 percent of black migrants own their homes. That’s lower than the national average homeownership average of 64 percent; it’s also close but still lower than the 42 percent average for black people born in the U.S.

These numbers change when you consider the region that black immigrants originate from. African migrants hold more college degrees than both other black immigrants and the general U.S. population. Meanwhile, black South American immigrants have a higher household income than other black immigrants and the general U.S. population. And, at 46 percent, Caribbean and South American black immigrants have the highest homeownership rate.

The report also dedicates a short chapter on how black migration has changed in the last 15 years—that’s important because, according to Pew, 45 percent of black immigrants first arrived in 2000 or later.

You can read the PDF report in its entirety online. 

Four Students Get Surprised With Scholarships From Kevin Hart

Four Students Get Surprised With Scholarships From Kevin Hart

Kevin Hart surprised four high school seniors from his hometown of Philadelphia with scholarships.

The self-proclaimed “comedian rockstar” partnered with the United Negro College Fund (UNCF) to give each of the four students $50,000 as rewards for their high GPAs and in acknowledgment of their financial needs. 

According “Entertainment Tonight,” Hart joked:

My money went to a much much more useful cause I guess you would say than what I would have been doing with it at a strip club. 

The scholarship recipients will also get to attend the “UNCF Evening of Stars” event in Atlanta.

Clinton to Announce Sunday, Paul on Periscope Today, A Very Mad Man

Clinton to Announce Sunday, Paul on Periscope Today, A Very Mad Man
Here’s what I’m reading up on this morning: 
  • Cuban President Raúl Castro will meet with Obama and other Latin American leaders in Panama today at start of the Summit of the Americas. 
  • It’s not just Sabra hummus. Some packages of Blue Bell ice cream and Henry’s Farm soybean sprouts are also contaminated with listeria; the ice cream has likely killed three people.
TAGS: Morning Rush

Slager’s Previous Excessive Force, Obama in Jamaica, Contaminated Sabra Hummus

Slager's Previous Excessive Force, Obama in Jamaica, Contaminated Sabra Hummus

Here’s what I’m reading up on this morning: 

TAGS: Morning Rush

‘Fresh Off the Boat’: Chinese Numerology 101

'Fresh Off the Boat': Chinese Numerology 101

We’re down to the final episodes on season 1 of “Fresh Off the Boat,” the first Asian-American family sitcom to come around in 20 years. I’ve been thinking lately that if this is it, if there’s no season 2, I’ll feel good about what the show’s creators were able to produce. I’ll buy the DVD (do they still sell DVDs?), and maybe even take it down from the shelf for sporadic nostalgic viewings in the possible decades that pass before the next Asian-American family gets to be on television again. 

It’s impossible to gauge the show’s unfulfilled potential—there’s so little to compare it against, for starters. But there’s plenty of evidence of how bad a job Hollywood’s done with representation of Asians on television in the 20 years of waiting between Margaret Cho’s “All-American Girl” and “Fresh Off the Boat.” That doesn’t mean the real-life Eddie Huang’s not going to keep reaching for more.

On Tuesday night Huang, whose identically named memoir inspired the sitcom, took to Twitter to sound off about the TV show. (It’s not the first or even second time Huang’s publicly criticized the show which credits him as a producer.)

Huang let it be known that he doesn’t watch the show out of frustration that it doesn’t draw more of its humor from the real pain and violence that sat at the core of his journey through childhood. It’s a fair critique—the show’s main characters and rough story arcs are after all named after and inspired by Eddie and his real-life family. It’s also buoyed by a cheery disconnect from reality. But this is also network TV we’re talking about. I look forward to the Huang family story told in the form of a cinematically shot, hyper-realistic, suspense-filled arch drama, but I doubt that the kind of show Huang’s envisioning will find a home on a major network in the form of a half-hour family comedy. 

Which brings us to episode 11 of “Fresh Off the Boat,” entitled “Very Superstitious.” There have been moments while watching this show when I’ve sat slack-jawed staring at the television wondering to myself: Are they really talking about this in public? Last night was one of those moments.

This episode was less about advancing the story arc for any of the show’s characters and more about a specific cultural concept: numerology, the superstitious ideas which guide so much of many Chinese people’s life. Wider society never acknowledges (let alone comprehends) so many parts of Chinese and Asian-American people’s experiences that I was stunned that TV audiences got this mini lesson in numerology last night.

In Chinese culture, superstition about fortune and tragedy, combined with a language in which homonyms abound, makes for an endless list of potential life potholes to navigate. As the janitor at Jessica Huang’s new real estate job explains in a perfect aside, in Chinese the word for “four” sounds very much like the word for “death.” The number four is therefore avoided at all costs. (The number eight, however, rhymes with the word for wealth or fortune and so eight is a very lucky number.)

Numerology plays out in big and small ways: When giving gifts, for example, never give four of anything. Bring three or five oranges to your Chinese auntie’s dinner, but never four. In college when I spent a summer in China and had to get a cell phone, numbers with 4’s in them were dirt cheap while those with 8’s in them were out of my price range. It’s best not to get married on April 4 if you can help it. In 2006 the New York Times published a story on the cutthroat economy of license plate auctions in China—including the sale of a plate stacked with 8’s which sold for $10,000. 

Imagine, then, Jessica’s horror when she gets assigned to sell a house that’s been on the market for years with the address: 44 West 44th Street, a home with four bedrooms and four baths. The usual family sitcom hijinks ensue, with plenty of delightful surprises, including the rare opportunity to see Randall Park break out of his unflappable cheesy dad role to show his rubber-faced range; the adorableness that is Ian Chen, who plays Evan Huang; and the actual Scottie Pippen, who is a good sport playing himself (with a more-than-decent deadpan delivery) in several bits where he still can’t get any respect. 

Like the rest of this past season, Tuesday night’s episode was one I could dish about with my Chinese family, and would also recommend to a non-Chinese person who asks me to explain why my landlord has given my roommate and me eight—always eight, never fewer—tangerines to celebrate Lunar New Year. And that’s perhaps “Fresh Off the Boat’s greatest strength. It’s funny and familiar for insiders, and not at all painful to share with outsiders.

Walter Scott’s Family: Without Bystander Video, Charges Unlikely

Walter Scott's Family: Without Bystander Video, Charges Unlikely

A day after white North Charleston, S.C. police officer Michael Slager was arrested for murdering a 50-year-old black man named Walter Scott, Scott’s family is voicing a sentiment shared by many: Without the damning video, there’d have been little hope for criminal charges. 

“It would have never come to light,” Walter Scott Sr., the victim’s father, said on “The Today Show.” “They would have swept it under the rug, like they did with many others. When I saw it I fell to my feet and my heart was broken.” 

In a video made public Tuesday, on the same day that Slager was charged with murder, the 33-year-old officer can be seen shooting at Scott Jr. eight times while he flees. Just after the shooting Slager radioed for assistance, saying: “Shots fired and the subject is down. He took my Taser,” the New York Times reported. In the video, however, shortly after the shooting, Slager runs back to the spot where the two men initially met and Slager reportedly fired his Taser. Slager picks up an item and drops it near Scott’s body.

The FBI and the Department of Justice have opened separate inquiries into the case.

An analysis from South Carolina newspaper The State found that police officers have fired their guns 209 times in the last five years, resulting in 79 deaths. Among those more than 200 incidents just three officers were ever accused of misconduct. All three cases were brought just in the last year against white cops who shot at black drivers. No South Carolina cop has been convicted in the last five years.

Murder Charge for White Cop, DirecTV Cancels Rob Lowe Ads, NASA on Aliens

Murder Charge for White Cop, DirecTV Cancels Rob Lowe Ads, NASA on Aliens

Here’s what I’m reading up on this morning:

  • A white South Carolina cop, Michael T. Slager, is charged with murder for fatally shooting Walter Scott, an unarmed black man, in the back. The incident began with a traffic stop.

Report: Majority of Prison Inmates Have Mental Illness

Report: Majority of Prison Inmates Have Mental Illness

People with mental illness are overrepresented in the ranks of those in the U.S. behind bars. A new report (PDF) out today from the Urban Institute compiles the numbers, as well as documents how little is known about the most efficient and productive ways to treat mentally ill people who are locked up.

More than half—56 percent—of those held in state prisons, 45 percent of those in federal prison, and 64 percent of people locked up in local jails have a mental health problem, according to the report. One in five people suffers from a depression-related disorder, making that illness the most common mental health issues inmates face. Manic depression, and bipolar disorder come in second.

The report authors stress that their inquiry focuses on those with severe mental health illnesses, acknowledging that mental health and symptoms of mental illness exist on a spectrum, but leaving off “general mental health maintenance” and problems like sleep disorders to focus instead on “clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the pyschological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning.” 

This graph, from the report, shows the scope of the issue:

Screen Shot 2015-04-07 at 11.16.01 AM.png

However, people with mental health problems often receive inadequate care, with just one in three state prisoners receiving some form of mental health care and one in six inmates in jails receiving mental health care. The report doesn’t include breakdowns by race.

“With such high numbers, their care and treatment is not just a humanitarian concern, it is a critical economic, societal, and public safety issue,” the report authors write.

Tony Robinson’s Family, With Little Faith in State Probe, Wants Charges

Tony Robinson's Family, With Little Faith in State Probe, Wants Charges

On Monday the family and supporters of Tony Robinson Jr., a biracial 19-year-old who was shot and killed by white Madison, Wis., police officer Matt Kenny on March 6, gathered to voice their waning faith in the credibility of a state investigation into their son’s death.

Jerome Flowers, a spokesperson for the Robinson family, spoke in front of the Dane County Courthouse Monday calling on District Attorney Ismael Ozanne “to do the right thing” and indict Kenny, Capital Times reported. The state Department of Justice delivered its report into Robinson’s death to the local DA on March 27. The local prosecutor will now decide whether or not to indict Kenny.

Activists say Robinson’s death is illuminating weaknesses in Wisconsin’s AB 409, the first state law of its kind requiring an independent state investigation in the wake of a police fatality. The law requires that three investigators with the Wisconsin Department of Justice’s Division of Criminal Investigations look into law enforcement incidents that result in fatalities, two of whom are may not be employed by the agency involved in the shooting. But even backers of the law have acknowledged that it has loopholes which don’t fully ensure independence, Colorlines reported. One of the state investigators involved in the inquiry into Robinson’s death used to be employed by the Madison police department, the very agency in question, The Guardian reported on Saturday.

Robinson’s family called on the DA to meet with them, and also review the findings of a private autopsy before making a decision about potential criminal charges, the Wisconsin State Journal reported. The Young Gifted and Black Coalition, a group of youth leaders in Wisconsin, is already preparing for a non-indictment, and has put out a public call preparing for a protest either way.

“I want to take it to the place where police are really here to protect us,” Robinson’s grandmother Sharon Irwin told Madison’s WORT on Monday. “We as a people, we have to make the changes. That’s the only way it’s going to happen. We have to be tired enough to say, ‘I don’t want to do this anymore… I don’t want to live in fear anymore.’ I want my grandkids to live in place where they don’t have to worry about getting shot on the street because of the color of their skin, where they’re at, or who they happen to look like.”

Virginia Latest State to Ban-the-Box on Employment Apps

Virginia Latest State to Ban-the-Box on Employment Apps

Virginia last Friday became the newest state to ban the question about criminal history on employment applications for most state jobs. For candidates with either past arrests or convictions, that means less immediate discrimination and a greater chance of proceeding through the application process based on their qualifications. Inquiries about criminal history can be made after a person is determined a good candidate for the position.

At least 14 other states and a growing number of municipalities now ban the criminal history question. Discriminating against those with criminal records often means denying employment to a population the size of a major U.S. city. It also means denying stable income or housing options to the families who depend on them.

More than 650,000 individuals are released from prison into their communities each year. About 7 million people, roughly the population of New York City, are currently under some form of correctional supervision, the lowest number observed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics since 2000. 

Virginia’s executive order does not apply to private businesses.

In A Closely Watched Election, Ferguson Residents Vote Today

In A Closely Watched Election, Ferguson Residents Vote Today

It’s perhaps the most-watched small town election happening in the country today. Ferguson, Mo., residents go to the polls to decide whether its city council will remain majority white in their majority black city. The lack of African-American political voices, from the mayor and police chief on down through the school board, had been widely cited as a critical factor in racial tensions exacerbated by the fatal police shooting of unarmed African-American teenager Michael Brown and the St. Louis grand jury’s non-indictment of Darren Wilson, the white officer who shot him.

Ferguson is about two-thirds black. White residents comprise less than a third of the city, but they have been 83 percent of city council, 94 percent of the police department and 86 percent of the school board. There has been low voter turnout (12 percent and under) in previous elections.

“Protesting is fine and all that and dandy, but without any political change, nothing is going to happen,” says 33-year-old Crystall Stovall, who is black, to Tribune News Service. “You can protest till your lungs turn blue, but if the laws don’t change, it doesn’t matter.”

The council hires those running and enforcing the city’s operations. Four of the eight candidates seeking three open seats are black. Incumbents decided not to run in an effort to heal. Today’s election is reportedly, the most diverse in Ferguson’s 120-year history.

Read more on Governing.

Rand Paul Candidacy, Maya Angelou Stamp Fiasco, Bringing Brontosaurus Back

Rand Paul Candidacy, Maya Angelou Stamp Fiasco, Bringing Brontosaurus Back

Here’s what I’m reading up on this morning: 

  • Phi Kappa Psi, the frat at the center of Rolling Stone’s now retracted campus rape story, will sue the publication

Man Charged With Chapel Hill Killings in Court Today

Man Charged With Chapel Hill Killings in Court Today

Less than an hour after killing three Muslim-American family members in their Chapel Hill apartment complex, he says, 46-year-old Craig Stephen Hicks turned himself into police. Hicks will be in court today for a hearing to determine whether he could face the death penalty. In February, Hicks fatally shot three students, Deah Shaddy Barakat, 23, his wife, Yusor Mohammad, 21, and her sister, Razan Mohammad Abu-Salha, 19. Police reports contend that the unprovoked triple homicide was over a parking dispute, which the victims’ families strongly dispute. They say their children were killed because they are Muslim.

If convicted of first-degree murder, the prosecutor has said in court documents that he intends to seek the death penalty.

(h/t AP)

Obama on Iran, Kenya Bombs Somalia, Junk Food-Eating Ants

Obama on Iran, Kenya Bombs Somalia, Junk Food-Eating Ants

Here’s what I’m reading up on this morning: 

TAGS: Morning Rush

From Coon to Watermelon Jokes, Barriers Remain for Young Black Writers Today

From Coon to Watermelon Jokes, Barriers Remain for Young Black Writers Today

“The publishing industry on which my work depends is 89 [percent] white,” writes poet and Buzzfeed LGBT editor Saeed Jones in a new essay about stumbling through that prickly terrain as a young, black writer. Jones, 29, was referencing a 2014 industry survey in which 3 percent of employee respondents described themselves as Asian and Hispanic, respectively, while 1 percent identified as African-American. And in looking for guidance from the experiences of past luminaries like Gwendolyn Brooks and James Baldwin, Jones ends up posing a question: well, how exactly has publishing improved since the 1950s?  (It’s the same one raised late last year after a watermelon joke greeted African-American winner Jacqueline Woodson during the National Book Awards.) 

In his essay “Wallace Stevens After Lunch,” poet Kevin Young notes that while having lunch with the other 1952 National Book Award judges, Stevens looked at the photograph of the poet Gwendolyn Brooks — the first black person to win the Pulitzer Prize, in 1950 — and said, “Who’s the coon?” Noticing the other judges — all white men — shifting in their seats with discomfort, he added, “I know you don’t like to hear people call a lady a coon but who is it?” Brooks had been on the NBA judging committee that had given the hallowed award to Stevens for poetry the previous year.

These moments in literary history are usually segregated to the footnotes section. Throughout my education, I never heard “Like Decorations In A Nigger Cemetery” discussed in a classroom, never talked about Wallace Stevens looking at a picture of Gwendolyn Brooks and asking, “Who’s the lady coon?” — as if racism vanishes the moment we set foot into the ivory towers and glittering soirees of the literati.

Read more of Jones’ essay on Buzzfeed, as well as more about him and his new $12,000 emerging writers fellowship aimed at diversifying media:

When we expect young writers to get experience via unpaid internships, we’re actually saying we want only wealthy people writing about American culture in an influential way. That’s what we get, right? Or rather, that’s what we’ve gotten used to accepting as normal when in fact, it’s a kind of fiction. Diversity is reality. So, in order to do my part to support being in step with reality, I’m really excited about creating an opportunity for emerging writers to get experience and mentorship while also receiving financial support. You can’t expect someone to do their best work if they’re exhausted and broke. Well, maybe you can expect it but doing so strikes me as a bit cruel.

Death of 14-Year-Old Latino Killed by Chicago Police Kill Labeled ‘Suicide’

Death of 14-Year-Old Latino Killed by Chicago Police Kill Labeled 'Suicide'

On the Fourth of July 2014, Chicago police shot and killed a 14-year-old child, Pedro Rios Jr. Although the Cook County medical examiner’s autopsy revealed that Rios’s death was caused by homicide, his official death record, certified by the same agency, reads “suicide” as the manner of death.

That—and many more disturbing details of Chicago police and the Independent Police Review Authority’s (IPRA) practices around officer-involved killings—is what Sarah Macaraeg found in part one of her four-part investigation for Truthout.

According to its website, Chicago’s IPRA was created in 2007 over criticism over the police department’s misconduct. IPRA is lead “by a civilian Chief Administrator and staffed entirely with civilian investigators, IPRA is an independent agency of the City of Chicago, separate from the Chicago Police Department. IPRA replaced the former Office of Professional Standards.” But, Macaraeg’s reporting indicates IPRA is failing at holding police accountable: the agency failed to even count at least six officer-involved killings in three years alone—including Rios’s death, which is ironically listed as “non-fatal.”

Part one of Truthout’s investigation yields damning conclusions about the Chicago PD as well as the very costly civilian-led IPRA, including institutionalized bias. 

Iran Nuke Deal, Noose at Duke, FLOTUS on Fallon

Iran Nuke Deal, Noose at Duke, FLOTUS on Fallon

Here’s what I’m reading up on this morning: 

  • Proof that we have the best First Lady. Ever. 

Backlash Over Indiana, California Water Cuts, Adobe’s Slate

Backlash Over Indiana, California Water Cuts, Adobe's Slate

Here’s what I’m reading up on this morning: 

McDonald’s Workers Win Pay Raise

McDonald's Workers Win Pay Raise

McDonald’s will raise its hourly wage for 90,000 workers, The Wall Street Journal reports (paywalled). Beginning July 1, the global fast food company will pay at least a $1-per-hour more at the 1,500 U.S. restaurants that it directly owns, bringing the hourly rate to around $10 by the end of 2016. After a year of employment, workers will be able to annually accrue up to five days of paid time-off. The raise and paid time-off benefit will not apply to franchisee-owned operations, however, which comprise nearly 90 percent of the 14,350 McDonald’s in the U.S.

Yesterday, fast-food workers from the Fight for $15 campaign announced that their next big wave of domestic and international protests will begin on April 15. The fast food worker strikes began in New York City in November 2012 when a couple hundred workers walked off their fast food jobs, not just McDonald’s. Now, according to The New York Times, “organizers say more than 60,000 people will join strikes and protests in 200 cities nationwide.”

‘Fresh Off the Boat’ Gets Its First Gay Character

'Fresh Off the Boat' Gets Its First Gay Character

America’s first Asian-American family sitcom in 20 years got its first gay character last night. Oscar Chow, played by Rex Lee, stopped by the Huang household to visit his old college flame(s), Jessica, whom he dated briefly, and Louis, his real crush.

It’s easy to be unmoved by this TV event. We are, after all, living in the age of “ethnic castings.” I don’t claim to have an exhaustive knowledge of television, but I’ve sat here a good while racking my brain, and still can’t name another openly gay Asian man currently on television. Perhaps the most notable ever is a character Lee himself played—as the endlessly patient Hollywood assistant Lloyd on HBO’s “Entourage.” When Asian men do appear on television, they’re asked to squeeze themselves into extremely limited archetypes. Alex Jung, writing for  Vulture last year, canvassed an enormous swath of contemporary television to find just a handful of scenarios in which Asian male characters are allowed to have a sexual identity on television.

At the episode’s start Jessica’s eagerly awaiting her college ex’s visit, in part because she’s anticipating the boost in attention from her husband Louis. “We were like Patrick Swayze and Demi Moore in ‘Ghost,’ except we were alive, and in college,” Jessica gushes to Louis. 

At first she’s pleasantly surprised that Louis is so welcoming to Oscar and unbothered by his visit, but later, when Louis denies her the flattery of his jealousy, she gets annoyed. Jessica fumes: does Louis take her for granted? Why doesn’t he mind that her former flame will be staying over in their home?

Louis, for his part, is not so much secure in his relationship with Jessica as he is attuned to something that Jessica’s clueless about: Oscar is gay. The hints are everywhere. Oscar shows up wearing a ’90s Versace-inspired leopard and gold filigree-print blouse and bearing a croquembouche—but Jessica’s not particularly aware of people’s sexuality in general. It takes her the better part of the episode to figure this out, and by the end of it Louis learns that he’s also pretty dense when it comes to attraction and flirtation as well. 

With the dearth of Asian and gay Asian characters on television, I was actually relieved at the non-event event that was Oscar Chow’s entrance into sitcom life. Is his sole defining characteristic his gayness? Yes. Is he a walking compendium of cliched gay stereotypes? You got it. Does the show at one point feature Lee dressed up in faux geisha getup? Mhm. But at no point in the episode is his being gay ever made to be a problem, or a source of fear or a justification for hatred. His personhood, however flat, is absolute. What with all the attendant firsts and milestones of Oscar’s arrival, I appreciated that on at least that note, “Fresh Off the Boat” didn’t miss.

By now the writers of “Fresh Off the Boat” have innoculated me against the fear that they’d pass off subtly racist or blatantly homophobic material as comedy. But this is an Asian immigrant family we’re talking about. I’ve encountered as much shameful homophobia as open-minded sensitivity among the Chinese people I’ve met (though far more likely than either is plain ignorance). A flash of homophobic insecurity on the part of either Jessica or Louis would not have surprised me in the least if this exact same storyline happened in real life. “Fresh Off the Boat” is never more idealized American family sitcom than when it’s confronting parent-child relationships, and I don’t think that’s a bad thing. Last night the show got to add gay loved ones to that list of sanitized story arcs. 

048256000078_A2.jpgAnd, lastly, I can’t end this week’s recap without a shoutout to the show’s writers, who found room in the episode to mention two quintessentially Chinese household items: oyster sauce, the cornerstone of many a Chinese cook’s pantry, and white flower oil (bak fa yau, or bai hua you for you Mandarin speakers). 

For those who have no cultural reference point for white flower oil, the closest I can offer is that scene from “My Big Fat Greek Wedding,” when Nia Vardalos’ father uses Windex as a Neosporin-like cure-all for aches, cuts, and pains. Bak fa yau (excuse my Cantonese romanization—I’ve never used its English name before) is like that—but it’s not a gag. Just about every Chinese immigrant home I’ve ever been in has at least one of these tiny glass bottles, filled with sharply mentholated medicinal oil whose myriad uses are legion. Sore muscles? Bak fa yau. Mosquito bites? Bak fa yau. Hives? Bak fa yau. Sprained ankle? Bak fa yau. Headache? Bak fa yau. It’s efficacy is debatable. But its ubiquity is unquestioned.

Somehow, in some strange way, the mention of bak fa yau on network television last night seemed as big a deal as Oscar’s introduction.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221