At long last the Supreme Court has issued its ruling in the Fisher v. University of Texas case—resolving almost nothing in the long, winding battle over affirmative action in higher education. But when President Lyndon Baines Johnson first articulated the rationale behind affirmative action policies in 1965, he discussed grander goals than fostering diverse student bodies. He understood that a just nation and government could not ignore the racial disparities of his time—in employment, income and poverty. He knew that the unjust root causes of those disparities demanded government and societal action. Yet in present day, while comparable racial disparities persist, there may be only a minority of voices on the court who appreciate the continued importance of a collective commitment to combat them and create broadly equitable conditions. Here is a look at the affirmative action policies, including those of higher education, that have tried to confront inequity.

—Dom Apollon

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